COVID-19 studies:  C19 studies: C19:  IvermectinIVM Vitamin DV.D PXPX FLVFLV PVP-IPI BUBU BHBH BLBL CICI HC QHC Q NZNZ COCO More..
 
100% of the 29 early treatment studies report a positive effect (13 statistically significant in isolation).
Random effects meta-analysis with pooled effects using the most serious outcome reported shows 66% improvement for the 29 early treatment studies (RR 0.34 [0.24-0.49]). Results are similar after exclusion based sensitivity analysis: 67% (RR 0.33 [0.24-0.44]), and after restriction to 20 peer-reviewed studies: 65% (RR 0.35 [0.25-0.47]). Restricting to the 6 RCTs shows 46% improvement (RR 0.54 [0.33-0.86]). Restricting to the 13 mortality results shows 75% lower mortality (RR 0.25 [0.16-0.40]).
Late treatment is less successful, with only 70% of the 175 studies reporting a positive effect. Very late stage treatment is not effective and may be harmful, especially when using excessive dosages.
87% of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) for early, PrEP, or PEP treatment report positive effects, the probability of this happening for an ineffective treatment is 0.0037.
There is substantial evidence of bias towards publishing negative results. 80% of prospective studies report positive effects, and only 72% of retrospective studies do. Studies from North America are 3.3 times more likely to report negative results than studies from the rest of the world combined, p = 0.0000000049.
Negative meta analyses of HCQ generally choose a subset of trials, focusing on late treatment, especially trials with very late treatment and excessive dosages.
While many treatments have some level of efficacy, they do not replace vaccines and other measures to avoid infection. Only 5% of HCQ studies show zero events in the treatment arm.
Elimination of COVID-19 is a race against viral evolution. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used. Not doing so increases the risk of COVID-19 becoming endemic; and increases mortality, morbidity, and collateral damage.
Twitter censored our original paper. This Twitter version contains data only (no conclusions). All data to reproduce this paper and the sources are in the appendix.
Total257 studies4,112 authors384,791 patients
Positive effects191 studies2,957 authors270,418 patients
Early treatment 66% improvement RR 0.34 [0.24-0.49]
Late treatment 22% improvement RR 0.78 [0.73-0.84]
    
  
A
00.250.50.7511.251.51.752+Gautret66%0.34 [0.17-0.68]2.4gviral+6/2014/16Improvement, RR [CI]Dose (4d)TreatmentControlHuang (RCT)92%0.08 [0.01-1.32]4.0g (c)no recov.0/106/12Esper64%0.36 [0.15-0.87]2.0ghosp.8/41212/224Ashraf68%0.32 [0.10-1.10]1.6gdeath10/772/5Huang (ES)59%0.41 [0.26-0.66]2.0g (c)viral time32/3237/37Guérin61%0.39 [0.02-9.06]2.4gdeath0/201/34Chen (RCT)72%0.28 [0.10-0.82]1.6gviral time18/1812/12Derwand79%0.21 [0.03-1.47]1.6gdeath1/14113/377Mitjà (RCT)16%0.84 [0.35-2.03]2.0ghosp.8/13611/157Skipper (RCT)37%0.63 [0.21-1.91]3.2ghosp./death5/2318/234Hong65%0.35 [0.13-0.72]n/aviral+42/4248/48Bernabeu-Wittel59%0.41 [0.36-0.95]2.0gdeath18983Yu (ES)85%0.15 [0.02-1.05]1.6gdeath1/73238/2,604Ly56%0.44 [0.26-0.75]2.4gdeath18/11629/110Ip55%0.45 [0.11-1.85]n/adeath2/9744/970Heras96%0.04 [0.02-0.09]n/adeath8/7016/30Kirenga26%0.74 [0.37-1.48]n/arecov. time29/2927/27Sulaiman64%0.36 [0.17-0.80]2.0gdeath7/1,81754/3,724Guisado-Vasco (ES)67%0.33 [0.05-1.55]n/adeath2/65139/542Szente Fonseca64%0.36 [0.20-0.67]2.0ghosp.25/17589/542Cadegiani81%0.19 [0.01-3.88]1.6gdeath0/1592/137Simova94%0.06 [0.00-1.13]2.4ghosp.0/332/5Omrani (RCT)12%0.88 [0.26-2.94]2.4ghosp.7/3044/152Agusti68%0.32 [0.06-1.67]2.0gprogression2/874/55Su85%0.15 [0.04-0.57]1.6gprogression261355Amaravadi (DB RCT)60%0.40 [0.13-1.28]3.2gno recov.3/156/12Roy2%0.98 [0.45-2.20]n/arecov. time1415Mokhtari70%0.30 [0.20-0.45]2.0gdeath27/7,295287/21,464Million83%0.17 [0.06-0.48]2.4gdeath5/8,31511/2,114Early treatment66%0.34 [0.24-0.49]266/20,2531,116/34,09766% improvementAll 29 hydroxychloroquine COVID-19 early treatment studieshcqmeta.com 6/17/21Tau​2 = 0.62; I​2 = 87.4%; Z = 5.87 (p < 0.0001)Lower RiskIncreased Risk
    
  
B
00.250.50.7511.251.51.752+All studiesEarly treatmentmin, Q1, median, Q3, maxLower RiskIncreased Riskhcqmeta.com 6/17/21
    
  
C
100+ 75 50 25 25 50 75 100 Gautretviral+, p=0.001Huangno recov., p=0.02Esperhosp., p=0.02Ashrafdeath, p=0.15Huangviral- time, p<0.0001Guérindeath, p=1.00Chenviral- time, p=0.01Derwanddeath, p=0.12Mitjàhosp., p=0.64Skipperhosp./death, p=0.58Hongviral+, p=0.001Bernabeu-Witteldeath, p=0.03Yudeath, p=0.02Lydeath, p=0.02Ipdeath, p=0.43Herasdeath, p=0.004Kirengarecov. time, p=0.20Sulaimandeath, p=0.01Guisado-Vascodeath, p=0.19Szente Fonsecahosp., p=0.0008Cadegianideath, p=0.21Simovahosp., p=0.01Omranihosp., p=1.00Agustiprogression, p=0.21Suprogression, p=0.006Amaravadino recov., p=0.13Royrecov. time, p=0.96Mokhtarideath, p<0.0001Milliondeath, p=0.0009Early treatment% Lower Risk% Increased Riskhcqmeta.com 6/17/21Probability results fromineffective treatmentJun 22 p<0.011 in 100Jul 16 p<0.0011 in 1 thousandAug 21 p<0.00011 in 10 thousandSep 9 p<0.000011 in 100 thousandOct 31 p<0.0000011 in 1 millionDec 9 p<0.00000011 in 10 million
    
  
D
100+ 75 50 25 25 50 75 100 Xia, viral+, p=0.17Chen, progression, p=0.57Gautret, viral+, p=0.001Zhong, viral+, p<0.0001Chen, pneumonia, p=0.04Huang, no recov., p=0.02Barbosa, death, p=0.58Tang, viral+, p=0.51Esper, hosp., p=0.02Magagnoli, death, p=0.74Izoulet, death, p<0.001Ashraf, death, p=0.15Auld, death, p=1.00Sánchez..., death, p=0.005Mallat, viral- time, p=0.02Huh, cases, p=0.09Mitchell, death, p<0.0001Gendelman, cases, p=0.88Membrillo..., death, p=0.002Geleris, int./death, p=0.76Konig, hosp., p=0.88Alberici, death, p=0.12Rosenberg, death, p=0.31Shabrawishi, viral+, p=0.66Cassione, cases, p=0.59Mahévas, death, p=0.75Yu, death, p=0.002Macias, hosp., p=1.00Kim, hosp. time, p=0.01Singh, death, p=0.72Hraiech, death, p=0.21Ip, death, p=0.93Goldman, death, p=0.46Huang, viral- time, p<0.0001Gianfrancesco, hosp., p=0.82Chatterjee, cases, p<0.001Kuderer, death, p<0.0001Guérin, death, p=1.00Boulware, cases, p=0.35RECOVERY, death, p=0.15Bhattacharya, cases, p=0.001Wang, death, p=0.63Huang, hosp., p<0.001Luo, death, p=0.99Paccoud, death, p=0.88Sbidian, death, p=0.74Faíco-Filho, viral rate, p=0.40Chen, viral- time, p=0.01Fontana, death, p=0.53Bousquet, death, p=0.15Lagier, death, p=0.05Gendebien, cases, p=0.93Ferreira, cases, p<0.0001Sosa-García, death, p=1.00Komissarov, viral load, p=0.45Mikami, death, p<0.0001Martinez-Lopez, death, p=0.20Arshad, death, p=0.009Zhong, cases, p=0.04Derwand, death, p=0.12An, viral+, p=0.92Rivera-Izquierdo, death, p=0.75Chen, viral+, p=0.70Chen, viral+, p=0.71Cravedi, death, p=0.17Lecronier, death, p=0.24Trullàs, death, p=0.12Gupta, death, p=0.41Mitjà, hosp., p=0.64Skipper, hosp./death, p=0.58Hong, viral+, p=0.001Lyngbakken, death, p=1.00McGrail, death, p=0.69Desbois, cases, p=1.00Bernaola, death, p<0.0001Kelly, death, p=0.03Rivera, death, p=0.90Cavalcanti, death, p=0.77Khurana, cases, p=0.02Mitjà, death, p=0.27D'Arminio..., death, p=0.12Bernabeu-Wittel, death, p=0.03Davido, int./hosp., p=0.04Yu, progression, p=0.05Berenguer, death, p<0.0001Kamran, progression, p=1.00Kalligeros, death, p=0.57Singer, cases, p=0.62Salvarani, cases, p=0.75Saleemi, viral- time, p<0.05Roomi, death, p=0.54Abd-Elsalam, death, p=1.00Peters, death, p=0.57Pinato, death, p<0.0001Dubernet, ICU, p=0.008Gonzalez, death, p=0.06Ly, death, p=0.02Pasquini, death, p=0.34Catteau, death, p<0.0001Di Castelnuovo, death, p<0.0001Ip, death, p=0.43Ferri, cases, p=0.01Fried, death, p<0.001Albani, death, p=0.05de la Iglesia, hosp., p=1.00Heras, death, p=0.004Synolaki, death, p=0.27Laplana, cases, p=0.24Rentsch, death, p=0.83Kirenga, recov. time, p=0.20Alamdari, death, p=0.03Heberto, death, p=0.04Sulaiman, death, p=0.01Lauriola, death, p<0.001Ashinyo, hosp. time, p=0.03Grau-Pujol, cases, p=0.47Rajasingham, hosp., p=1.00Gentry, death, p=0.10Serrano, death, p=0.14Ulrich, death, p=1.00Shoaibi, death, p<0.001Lammers, death/ICU, p=0.02Abella, cases, p=1.00Ayerbe, death, p<0.001Polat, cases, p=0.03Almazrou, ventilation, p=0.16Nachega, death, p=0.17Ader, death, p=1.00Soto-Becerra, death, p<0.0001Aparisi, death, p=0.008Annie, death, p=0.83SOLIDARITY, death, p=0.23Guisado-Vasco, death, p=0.36Solh, death, p=0.17Ñamendys-Silva, death, p=0.18Dubee, death, p=0.21Lano, death, p=0.28Coll, death, p<0.0001Goenka, IgG+, p=0.03Frontera, death, p=0.01Choi, viral- time, p<0.0001Arleo, death, p=0.67Tehrani, death, p=0.63Szente Fonseca, hosp., p=0.0008López, progression, p=0.02Behera, cases, p=0.29Cadegiani, death, p=0.21Salazar, death, p=0.28Rodriguez-Nava, death, p=0.77Maldonado, death, p=0.17Dhibar, cases, p=0.03Mathai, cases, p<0.0001Núñez-Gil, death, p=0.005Self, death, p=0.84Rodriguez, death, p=0.23Águila-Gordo, death, p=0.10Simova, cases, p=0.01Simova, hosp., p=0.01Sheshah, death, p<0.001Boari, death, p<0.001Budhiraja, death, p<0.0001Falcone, death, p=0.20Omrani, hosp., p=1.00Revollo, cases, p=0.52Qin, death, p=0.61Burdick, death, p=0.12van Halem, death, p=0.05Rodriguez-Gonzalez, death, p=0.26Lambermont, death, p=0.46Abdulrahman, death, p=1.00Capsoni, ventilation, p=0.30Peng, progression, p=0.63Modrák, death, p=0.04Ozturk, death, p=0.14Barnabas, hosp., p=1.00Guglielmetti, death, p=0.22Agusti, progression, p=0.21Johnston, hosp., p=0.73Alqassieh, hosp. time, p=0.11Jung, death, p=1.00Bielza, death, p=0.09Tan, hosp. time, p=0.04Naseem, death, p=0.34Orioli, death, p=1.00Gönenli, progression, p=0.77Signes-Costa, death, p=0.0005Matangila, death, p=0.21Huh, progression, p=0.11Cangiano, death, p=0.03Taccone, death, p=0.0004Su, progression, p=0.006Chari, death, p=0.17Cordtz, hosp., p=0.67Güner, ICU, p=0.16Vernaz, death, p=0.71Texeira, death, p=0.10Psevdos, death, p=0.52Sands, death, p=0.01Lotfy, death, p=0.76Sarfaraz, death, p=0.07Yegerov, death, p=1.00Rangel, death, p=0.77Li, viral- time, p=0.06Li, no disch., p=0.08Trefond, death, p=0.80Roig, death, p=0.76Ubaldo, death, p=0.64Ouedraogo, death, p=0.38Hernandez-Cardenas, death, p=0.66Fitzgerald, cases, p=0.52Purwati, viral+, p<0.0001Thompson, death, p=0.84Lora-Tamayo, death, p<0.0001Awad, death, p=0.60Lamback, death, p=0.83Bae, cases, p=0.17Gonzalez, death, p=0.27Amaravadi, no recov., p=0.13Pham, death, p=0.77Salvador, death, p=0.007Martin-Vicente, death, p=0.41Vivanco-Hidalgo, hosp., p=0.10Roy, recov. time, p=0.96Stewart, death, p=0.95Stewart, death, p=0.0003Stewart, death, p=0.65Stewart, death, p=0.09Stewart, death, p=0.26Stewart, ventilation, p=0.09Stewart, death, p=0.27Barry, death, p=0.60Dev, cases, p=0.003Alghamdi, death, p=0.88Mokhtari, death, p<0.0001Seet, severe case, p=0.14Alegiani, death, p=0.64Alzahrani, death, p=1.00Reis, death, p=1.00Mohandas, death, p=0.007Réa-Neto, death, p=0.20Kokturk, death, p=0.97Aghajani, death, p=0.09Bosaeed, death, p=0.91De Rosa, death, p=0.003Sammartino, death, p=0.002Rojas-Serrano, symp. case, p=0.12Syed, symp. case, p=0.41Million, death, p=0.0009Smith, death, p<0.0001Kamstrup, hosp., p=0.25Korkmaz, death, p=0.19Sivapalan, death, p=0.32Byakika-Kibwika, recov. time, p=0.91Lagier, death, p=0.004Dinesh, cases, p<0.0001Singh, death, p=0.45Saib, int./death, p=0.23All studies% Lower Risk% Increased Riskhcqmeta.com 6/17/21Probability results fromineffective treatmentMay 19 p<0.011 in 100Jun 30 p<0.00011 in 10 thousandAug 18 p<0.000011 in 100 thousandSep 9 p<0.0000011 in 1 millionSep 21 p<0.00000011 in 10 millionOct 211 in 1 billionNov 201 in 1 trillion
Figure 1. A. Random effects meta-analysis of all early treatment studies. Simplified dosages are shown for comparison, these are the total dose in the first four days of treatment. Chloroquine is indicated with (c). For full details see the appendix. B. Scatter plot of the effects reported in early treatment studies and in all studies. Early treatment is more effective. C and D. Chronological history of all reported effects, with the probability that the observed frequency of positive effects occurred due to random chance from an ineffective treatment.
Introduction
We analyze all significant studies concerning the use of HCQ (or CQ) for COVID-19. Search methods, inclusion criteria, effect extraction criteria (more serious outcomes have priority), all individual study data, PRISMA answers, and statistical methods are detailed in Appendix 1. We present random-effects meta-analysis results for all studies, for studies within each treatment stage, for mortality results only, after exclusion of studies with critical bias, and for Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) only. Typical meta analyses involve subjective selection criteria and bias evaluation, requiring an understanding of the criteria and the accuracy of the evaluations. However, the volume of studies presents an opportunity for an additional simple and transparent analysis aimed at detecting efficacy.
If treatment was not effective, the observed effects would be randomly distributed (or more likely to be negative if treatment is harmful). We can compute the probability that the observed percentage of positive results (or higher) could occur due to chance with an ineffective treatment (the probability of >= k heads in n coin tosses, or the one-sided sign test / binomial test). Analysis of publication bias is important and adjustments may be needed if there is a bias toward publishing positive results. For HCQ, we find evidence of a bias toward publishing negative results.
Figure 2 shows stages of possible treatment for COVID-19. Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) refers to regularly taking medication before being infected, in order to prevent or minimize infection. In Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP), medication is taken after exposure but before symptoms appear. Early Treatment refers to treatment immediately or soon after symptoms appear, while Late Treatment refers to more delayed treatment.
    
  
Figure 2. Treatment stages.
Results
Figure 3, Figure 4, and Table 1 show results by treatment stage, and Figure 5 shows a forest plot for a random effects meta-analysis of all studies. Figure 6 shows a forest plot restricted to mortality results only.
Early treatment.
100% of early treatment studies report a positive effect, with an estimated reduction of 66% in the effect measured (death, hospitalization, etc.) from the random effects meta-analysis, RR 0.34 [0.24-0.49].
Late treatment.
Late treatment studies are mixed, with 70% showing positive effects, and an estimated reduction of 22% in the random effects meta-analysis. Negative studies mostly fall into the following categories: they show evidence of significant unadjusted confounding, including confounding by indication; usage is extremely late; or they use an excessively high dosage.
Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis.
75% of PrEP studies show positive effects, with an estimated reduction of 30% in the random effects meta-analysis. Negative studies are all studies of systemic autoimmune disease patients which either do not adjust for the different baseline risk of these patients at all, or do not adjust for the highly variable risk within these patients.
Post-Exposure Prophylaxis.
86% of PEP studies report positive effects, with an estimated reduction of 34% in the random effects meta-analysis.
Treatment timeNumber of studies reporting positive results Total number of studiesPercentage of studies reporting positive results Probability of an equal or greater percentage of positive results from an ineffective treatmentRandom effects meta-analysis results
Early treatment 29 29 100% 0.0000000019 p = 1.9e-09
1 in 537 million
66% improvement
RR 0.34 [0.24‑0.49]
p < 0.0001
Late treatment 123 176 69.9% 0.000000069 p = 6.9e-08
1 in 15 million
22% improvement
RR 0.78 [0.73‑0.84]
p < 0.0001
Pre‑Exposure Prophylaxis 36 48 75.0% 0.00036 p = 0.00036
1 in 3 thousand
30% improvement
RR 0.70 [0.57‑0.86]
p = 0.00069
Post‑Exposure Prophylaxis 6 7 85.7% 0.062 p = 0.062
1 in 16
34% improvement
RR 0.66 [0.53‑0.83]
p = 0.00043
All studies 191 257 74.3% 0.0000000000000014 p = 1.4e-15
1 in 698 trillion
27% improvement
RR 0.73 [0.69‑0.78]
p < 0.0001
Table 1. Results by treatment stage. 3 studies report results for a subset with early treatment, these are not included in the overall results.
    
  
00.250.50.7511.251.51.752+All studiesPost-Exposure ProphylaxisPre-Exposure ProphylaxisLate treatmentEarly treatmentmin, Q1, median, Q3, maxLower RiskIncreased Riskhcqmeta.com 6/17/21
Figure 3. Results by treatment stage.
    
  
100+ 75 50 25 25 50 75 100 Gautretviral+, p=0.001Huangno recov., p=0.02Esperhosp., p=0.02Ashrafdeath, p=0.15Huangviral- time, p<0.0001Guérindeath, p=1.00Chenviral- time, p=0.01Derwanddeath, p=0.12Mitjàhosp., p=0.64Skipperhosp./death, p=0.58Hongviral+, p=0.001Bernabeu-Witteldeath, p=0.03Yudeath, p=0.02Lydeath, p=0.02Ipdeath, p=0.43Herasdeath, p=0.004Kirengarecov. time, p=0.20Sulaimandeath, p=0.01Guisado-Vascodeath, p=0.19Szente Fonsecahosp., p=0.0008Cadegianideath, p=0.21Simovahosp., p=0.01Omranihosp., p=1.00Agustiprogression, p=0.21Suprogression, p=0.006Amaravadino recov., p=0.13Royrecov. time, p=0.96Mokhtarideath, p<0.0001Milliondeath, p=0.0009Early treatment% Lower Risk% Increased Riskhcqmeta.com 6/17/21Probability results fromineffective treatmentJun 22 p<0.011 in 100Jul 16 p<0.0011 in 1 thousandAug 21 p<0.00011 in 10 thousandSep 9 p<0.000011 in 100 thousandOct 31 p<0.0000011 in 1 millionDec 9 p<0.00000011 in 10 million
    
  
100+ 75 50 25 25 50 75 100 Xia, viral+, p=0.17Chen, progression, p=0.57Zhong, viral+, p<0.0001Chen, pneumonia, p=0.04Barbosa, death, p=0.58Tang, viral+, p=0.51Magagnoli, death, p=0.74Izoulet, death, p<0.001Auld, death, p=1.00Sánchez..., death, p=0.005Mallat, viral- time, p=0.02Membrillo..., death, p=0.002Geleris, int./death, p=0.76Alberici, death, p=0.12Rosenberg, death, p=0.31Shabrawishi, viral+, p=0.66Mahévas, death, p=0.75Yu, death, p=0.002Kim, hosp. time, p=0.01Singh, death, p=0.72Hraiech, death, p=0.21Ip, death, p=0.93Goldman, death, p=0.46Huang, viral- time, p<0.0001Kuderer, death, p<0.0001RECOVERY, death, p=0.15Wang, death, p=0.63Luo, death, p=0.99Paccoud, death, p=0.88Sbidian, death, p=0.74Faíco-Filho, viral rate, p=0.40Fontana, death, p=0.53Bousquet, death, p=0.15Lagier, death, p=0.05Sosa-García, death, p=1.00Komissarov, viral load, p=0.45Mikami, death, p<0.0001Martinez-Lopez, death, p=0.20Arshad, death, p=0.009An, viral+, p=0.92Rivera-Izquierdo, death, p=0.75Chen, viral+, p=0.70Chen, viral+, p=0.71Cravedi, death, p=0.17Lecronier, death, p=0.24Trullàs, death, p=0.12Gupta, death, p=0.41Lyngbakken, death, p=1.00McGrail, death, p=0.69Bernaola, death, p<0.0001Kelly, death, p=0.03Rivera, death, p=0.90Cavalcanti, death, p=0.77D'Arminio..., death, p=0.12Davido, int./hosp., p=0.04Yu, progression, p=0.05Berenguer, death, p<0.0001Kamran, progression, p=1.00Kalligeros, death, p=0.57Saleemi, viral- time, p<0.05Roomi, death, p=0.54Abd-Elsalam, death, p=1.00Peters, death, p=0.57Pinato, death, p<0.0001Dubernet, ICU, p=0.008Gonzalez, death, p=0.06Pasquini, death, p=0.34Catteau, death, p<0.0001Di Castelnuovo, death, p<0.0001Fried, death, p<0.001Albani, death, p=0.05Synolaki, death, p=0.27Alamdari, death, p=0.03Heberto, death, p=0.04Lauriola, death, p<0.001Ashinyo, hosp. time, p=0.03Serrano, death, p=0.14Ulrich, death, p=1.00Shoaibi, death, p<0.001Lammers, death/ICU, p=0.02Ayerbe, death, p<0.001Almazrou, ventilation, p=0.16Nachega, death, p=0.17Ader, death, p=1.00Soto-Becerra, death, p<0.0001Aparisi, death, p=0.008Annie, death, p=0.83SOLIDARITY, death, p=0.23Guisado-Vasco, death, p=0.36Solh, death, p=0.17Ñamendys-Silva, death, p=0.18Dubee, death, p=0.21Lano, death, p=0.28Coll, death, p<0.0001Frontera, death, p=0.01Choi, viral- time, p<0.0001Tehrani, death, p=0.63López, progression, p=0.02Salazar, death, p=0.28Rodriguez-Nava, death, p=0.77Maldonado, death, p=0.17Núñez-Gil, death, p=0.005Self, death, p=0.84Rodriguez, death, p=0.23Águila-Gordo, death, p=0.10Sheshah, death, p<0.001Boari, death, p<0.001Budhiraja, death, p<0.0001Falcone, death, p=0.20Qin, death, p=0.61Burdick, death, p=0.12van Halem, death, p=0.05Rodriguez-Gonzalez, death, p=0.26Lambermont, death, p=0.46Abdulrahman, death, p=1.00Capsoni, ventilation, p=0.30Peng, progression, p=0.63Modrák, death, p=0.04Ozturk, death, p=0.14Guglielmetti, death, p=0.22Johnston, hosp., p=0.73Alqassieh, hosp. time, p=0.11Bielza, death, p=0.09Tan, hosp. time, p=0.04Naseem, death, p=0.34Orioli, death, p=1.00Signes-Costa, death, p=0.0005Matangila, death, p=0.21Cangiano, death, p=0.03Taccone, death, p=0.0004Chari, death, p=0.17Güner, ICU, p=0.16Vernaz, death, p=0.71Texeira, death, p=0.10Psevdos, death, p=0.52Sands, death, p=0.01Lotfy, death, p=0.76Sarfaraz, death, p=0.07Yegerov, death, p=1.00Li, viral- time, p=0.06Li, no disch., p=0.08Roig, death, p=0.76Ubaldo, death, p=0.64Ouedraogo, death, p=0.38Hernandez-Cardenas, death, p=0.66Purwati, viral+, p<0.0001Thompson, death, p=0.84Lora-Tamayo, death, p<0.0001Awad, death, p=0.60Lamback, death, p=0.83Gonzalez, death, p=0.27Salvador, death, p=0.007Martin-Vicente, death, p=0.41Stewart, death, p=0.95Stewart, death, p=0.0003Stewart, death, p=0.65Stewart, death, p=0.09Stewart, death, p=0.26Stewart, ventilation, p=0.09Stewart, death, p=0.27Barry, death, p=0.60Alghamdi, death, p=0.88Reis, death, p=1.00Mohandas, death, p=0.007Réa-Neto, death, p=0.20Kokturk, death, p=0.97Aghajani, death, p=0.09Bosaeed, death, p=0.91De Rosa, death, p=0.003Sammartino, death, p=0.002Smith, death, p<0.0001Sivapalan, death, p=0.32Byakika-Kibwika, recov. time, p=0.91Lagier, death, p=0.004Singh, death, p=0.45Saib, int./death, p=0.23Late treatment% Lower Risk% Increased Riskhcqmeta.com 6/17/21Probability results fromineffective treatmentMay 24 p<0.051 in 20Aug 21 p<0.011 in 100Sep 24 p<0.0011 in 1 thousandOct 8 p<0.00011 in 10 thousand